We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
The imperial hazel grouse is an excellent flower bed decoration, and planting and caring for a flower in the open field will not cause too many problems. The hazel grouse bulbs are buried in the ground in the fall, and in the spring they expect the appearance of a tall peduncle with a lush crown of orange flowers and green leaves. This plant will revive a dull flower bed, because it blooms before the rest of the spring flowers.
Description and characteristics
Grouse imperial (royal) is a perennial tall herb from the Liliaceae family. Karl Linnaeus gave it the name - Imperial Fritillaria. This large bulbous culture has long been growing in the mountainous regions of Asia, the eastern Himalayas, in the subalpine meadows, and the Afghan ridges.
Europeans have been growing hazel grouses for almost 400 years. Holland can be considered the second homeland of this plant. It was in this country that new varieties of hazel grouses were bred.
There are 150 known species and a huge number of varieties of this plant. All varieties of hazel grouse have one characteristic feature - a tall, more than 1 meter in height, peduncle stem, topped with a crown of a bunch of leaves and flowers looking downward, similar to chandelier shades.
The peduncle stem reaches 1.5 meters in length. By the time it blooms, it becomes firm and straight. The stem comes out of the hole in the bulb. This large hole remains from last year's peduncle. The stem begins to grow in early spring as soon as the snow melts. After 2 weeks, it grows to its maximum height. It is at this time that tulips and daffodils are blooming.
The peduncle is attached to the bottom of the mother's bulb, below, at the base of the stem, new baby bulbs are formed. At the end of the growing season, the long stem dries up, then falls. From it, a hole remains in the mother's bulb. In autumn, 1-3 buds appear in the depths of this large hole. New flower stalks grow from them next spring.
The bulb is spherical. Its diameter is 10-20 centimeters. The bulb has a pungent smell of garlic. This part of the plant stores a supply of nutrients for the formation of stems, leaves and flowers. The bulb also keeps the stem from falling. True, for this it must be buried in the ground to a depth of 25 centimeters.
The flowers of the hazel grouse, in the amount of 6 or more, are collected in a single inflorescence and are located at the top of the shoot. They look like bells, look down and deviate from the peduncle in different directions, then rise slightly upward. The color of the petals, depending on the variety, is orange, yellow, red, purple, snow-white. Flowers with long stamens and pistil can be simple or double, monochromatic and variegated. There are about 20 bracts above the inflorescence. Grouse bloom in May, almost 20 days.
After the petals fall, instead of flowers, seed pods appear, in which the seeds ripen. Ripe bolls crack. True, the seeds do not spill out of them. The boxes are facing up. Leaves are dark green, oblong, lanceolate. They are located at the bottom of the stem in 3-4 whorls, 5-8 pieces in each.
Features of the
The imperial hazel grouse is used to decorate the personal plot in all regions of Russia, including the Moscow region. A spectacular tall spring flower is used to create alpine slides, rockeries, flower arrangements. It has a garlic smell, so it is better to plant the flower surrounded by tulips and daffodils.
The plant was called hazel grouse, because from a distance one might think that on a high stem there are not variegated flowers, but hazel grouse birds. In Europe, the plant is called the Crown of Caesar or the Tears of Mary.
Propagated mainly by bulbs, less often by seeds. The plant prefers a fertilized, loose, drained soil without stagnant water. It is advisable to choose a place protected from the wind, well-lit for flowers.
In the summer, after the hazel grouse has faded and the leaves begin to turn yellow, the bulbs, along with the peduncle, are dug out of the ground. Usually such an event is held at the end of June. The bulbs are divided in half or separated from the mother, dried under a canopy.
In September-October, when the roots hatch, they are again buried in the ground by 25 centimeters, and from above the surface of the soil is mulched. A similar procedure stimulates abundant flowering next spring. It is undesirable to plant bulbs later than November.
In the case of late planting, flowering will be weak and the plant will grow short. True, the bulbs do not need to be dug out, they can grow in one place for several years. If you grow hazel grouses with the help of seeds ripe by autumn, then a new flowering plant can be seen only after 3-7 years.
Other species of hazel grouse
In addition to the imperial, there are other species of hazel grouse. All plants have narrow leaves and drooping bright flowers located in the upper part of a straight long peduncle.
Fritillaria meleagris is a perennial plant belonging to the Grouse genus. It has an erect stem 30-50 centimeters high. Leaves - oblong, thin, in turns located in the upper part of the stem. The flower is often single, drooping, in the form of a bell.
The petals have a checkerboard pattern (maroon mesh on a pink or light background). Grouse blooms in late May and early June for 2-3 weeks. Chess hazel grouse has many varieties with various colors. For example, Alba is a variety with snow-white flowers, Saturnus - with red-purple flowers.
The plant was first discovered in 1904 near Tbilisi. The scientist Fomin gave him the name - Mikhailovsky hazel grouse. Grows up to 16-26 centimeters. There are two forms of this variety: tall - with single drooping bells-flowers and miniature - with an inflorescence of 2-3 flowers. The plant has long, lanceolate leaves. Flowers have unusual colors. The petals are burgundy above, and yellow at the edges. The tips of the petals curl outward, which makes the flower look like a shade or glass.
Bulbous plant, reaching 35-60 centimeters in height. The leaves are arranged in whorls, 5-10 pieces each. The flowers are funnel-shaped, 3.5 centimeters long, purple-burgundy. Blooms from May to June.
Grows in Kazakhstan. Another name is Aigul. A tall plant (up to 1.5 meters), with drooping flowers and a lush bracts at the top of the peduncle. Flowers - orange or scarlet, collected in a single inflorescence, 5-12 pieces in each. Leaves - oblong, located in whorls located on the stem.
The plant is 50 centimeters high. The flowers are similar to narrowed bells, located in 1-2 pieces at the end of the stem. The color of the petals is dark brown with a thin yellow border around the edges.
The plant is up to 1 meter high. It has an oblong inflorescence, similar to a Christmas tree, strewn with buds and bell flowers from top to bottom. The color of the petals is maroon. One oblong inflorescence can have 20-50 flowers.
A small plant that grows up to 16 centimeters in height. The variety was first discovered in Greece in 1940. Leaves are elongated, green, located at the base of the stem. Flowers are often solitary, in the form of a pale eggplant shade of bells.
The plant is 20-35 centimeters high. It has lanceolate, oblong leaves growing from a whorl in the middle of the stem. Flowers are solitary, drooping bells. The petals are yellowish, with purple or burgundy specks. Blooms in June-July. Listed in the Red Book.
Grouse has an unpleasant garlic smell. This feature can be used. For example, plant bulbs near plants whose roots are often attacked by pests or rodents. The smell of garlic will scare away uninvited guests. The hazel grouse can protect the garden from mice and moles.
Types and varieties of royal
The imperial or royal hazel grouse is represented by a huge variety of varieties. These flowers are planted in the garden for decoration, or in the garden as a natural insecticide.
Grouse with a peduncle, the height of which is 40-80 centimeters. Above - an inflorescence, consisting of 6 flowers, similar to wide-open bells. The petals of the flowers are of a soft lemon or cream shade. Leaves are long, dark green, lanceolate, with curled tips.
A tall plant with a long, thick purple stem and a lush inflorescence. The stem can grow up to 90 centimeters. At the top of the plant are scarlet flowers in the form of bells, and above them are the pointed green oblong leaves of the bracts. Long leaves, collected in whorls, grow at the bottom of the stem.
Long-flowering variety. It blooms in late April and blooms until June. On a high stem is a lush inflorescence, consisting of large golden flowers with bright red lines on the petals.
A bulbous plant that grows up to one meter. It has large orange flowers, collected in a single inflorescence at the top of the stem. The petals are pierced with thin scarlet stripes. Above the inflorescence is a lush crown of leaves. Dark green oblong leaves are also found at the bottom of the stem.
A tall plant, on a large, stable stem of which there is a lush inflorescence of bright lemon color of wide-open bells. It blooms once - in May.
A tall plant that grows up to 1 meter. At the very top of the thick long stem are orange, wide-open bell flowers. Above them is a lush crown of long green leaves.
Tall culture. At the top of the long stem is a lush inflorescence of drooping flowers that resemble wide-open bells. Their petals are orange, with subtle purple streaks.
The name of the plant, translated from Latin, means - a crown on a crown. Flowers - drooping, open bells of orange color with purple veins. Above the inflorescence is a lush crown of green leaves.
The plant is 80-100 centimeters high. It has lush orange flowers. On the surface of the petals there is a thin scarlet mesh.
An old variety named after Wilhelm 3. Flowers - bronze-claret, with a bluish bloom. This variety has small bulbs.
Tall plant. The stems grow up to 1 meter. Poorly tolerates winter. It has bright orange-red flowers.
A plant with a lush crown of bright orange flowers. The leaves of this variety have a silvery border.
Grouse are planted in the fall. Adult maternal bulbs are used as planting material. They can be split in half. Children who have grown up near adult bulbs are also buried in the ground. They are preliminarily separated from the mother. True, they will grow for a long time (3-4 years) before throwing out the flowering stem.
Hazel grouses are buried in the ground in September, rarely in October. By the time of planting, small roots should appear on the bulbs. It is undesirable to bury the bulbs later than November. The optimal time for planting is dry and warm September.
Before planting, it is advisable to dig up the earth, remove weeds, fertilize with rotted compost (half a bucket per square meter), dilute with peat and sand. The soil should not be heavy, clayey, cold and too moist. For planting, a shallow hole is dug. A little sand is poured at the bottom - this way you can protect the bulb from decay.
Before planting, the bulbs must be disinfected. The planting material is disinfected in a solution of fungicide (Maxim) or potassium permanganate. The bulbs are irrigated with diluted weakly concentrated preparations.
Grouse are planted in a well-lit area, sheltered from the winds. It is advisable not to choose lowlands where water will accumulate after rain. The hazel grouses do not tolerate swampy soil. From excess moisture, they will begin to rot and may not bloom. It is best to plant flowers on a mound. Because of the unpleasant smell of garlic, many gardeners try to plant hazel grouses in the background, in a distant garden bed or in a vegetable garden.
The hazel grouse, depending on the age and size of the bulbs, are buried in the ground to a depth of 10-30 centimeters. Adult mother bulbs are planted deep (30 centimeters), babies - close to the surface (10 centimeters). The distance to the neighboring plant should be 25-35 centimeters. It is advisable not to lay the bulbs evenly, but to plant them at an angle of 90 degrees.
How to transplant
The hazel grouse is dug out after it has faded. The adult mother bulb and the babies that have appeared are separated, and dried all summer in a dry, shaded place at a temperature of 20-25 degrees Celsius. In September, they are transplanted to a new site. For the bulb, prepare the ground (loosen and fertilize). They dig a shallow hole, sprinkle it with sand and insert an onion into it. It is covered with earth and watered with water.
Care and cultivation
Grouse need to be looked after regularly. In this case, they will bloom magnificently and will not die from pest attacks or due to diseases. The main thing for the gardener is to protect the bulbs from freezing in winter, to prevent them from rotting in the spring. To do this, before wintering, the surface where the bulbs are planted is insulated. In the spring, the mulch is removed and the hazel grouse is allowed to develop calmly.
Grouse do not like too moist soil. After all, their delicate bulbs begin to rot quickly in swampy soil. Flowers are watered occasionally - only in dry season. This plant perfectly tolerates drought and occasional watering. In the heat and in the case of a prolonged absence of rain, flowers are watered once a week. 3 liters of water are poured under one plant.
Mulching and shelter for the winter
It is advisable to mulch the land near the plant in spring with sawdust. Weeds will not be able to break through from under the mulch. However, you need to leave enough open space above the bulb. Otherwise, the hazel grouse stalk will not be able to germinate. Before wintering, the bulbs buried in the ground are covered with dry foliage or a layer of peat with sand. It is better to use spruce branches, reeds, straw as a shelter.
The thickness of the insulating layer should be 25-30 centimeters. In winter, you need to constantly throw snow on the place where the bulbs are buried. Under the snow cover, they will not freeze and will perfectly survive until spring.
Thorough care in spring
After the snow melts, the mulch must be removed from the garden. It is necessary to allow the hazel grouse to germinate. It is important to provide the plant with maximum sunlight. Young shoots tolerate spring frosts well, that is, the temperature drops to 6 degrees below zero. On cold nights, the stems freeze and bow to the ground, and quickly come to life in the sun.
It is undesirable to touch the ground near the planted bulb. During the winter, the roots grow and rise to the surface. Loosening of the soil is not carried out so as not to damage the thin roots. The plant can be fed with humus diluted in water (0.5 liters of organic matter per 5 liters of water).
The very first top dressing is done in the fall, before planting the bulbs in the ground. The soil is fertilized with rotted humus (half a bucket of organic matter per square meter of land). In the spring, just before flowering, the soil is fed with nitrogen substances (ammonium nitrate). For one plant you need: dilute 5-10 grams of fertilizer in 3 liters of water. During the flowering period, the hazel grouse is fed with superphosphate and potassium nitrate.You can use complex commercial fertilizers for flowering crops.
Diseases and pests
In rainy and cool summers, hazel grouse growing on nutrient-poor soil can get sick. Most often rot appears on the bulbs. The plant develops poorly, the leaves turn yellow and wither. In this case, the onion must be dug out, rots removed, and treated with a fungicide (Fundazol). Dry it and bury it in a new place in the fall.
Bulbs can develop fusarium disease. This fungus lives in the soil. With frequent rains, it activates, affects not only the bulbs, but also the stems, then the leaves turn yellow and wither. As a preventive measure, the plant is sprayed with a fungicide (Fitosporin, Topaz) or Bordeaux mixture.
If the bulbs are stored at temperatures above 35 degrees, developmental abnormalities may occur. For example, a double flower appears in an inflorescence. Mutation can be prevented if the bulbs are dried at a temperature not exceeding 25 degrees Celsius.
Due to the garlic smell, hazel grouses do not have that many pests. However, this plant can be attacked by lily rattles. Insects have orange wings. Onion rattles also attack hazel grouses. They have crimson wings. Crackers in case of danger emit a sound similar to crackling. Insects and their larvae feed on leaves and flowers. They are saved from insecticides (Aktara, Bombardir).
Grouse bulbs have a dangerous enemy living in the soil. This is a wireworm, that is, the larva of a click beetle. The insect takes root in the bulb, makes moves there, leads to decay of this part of the plant. The introduction of granular insecticidal preparations (Provotox or Rembeck) into the soil saves from the wireworm.
Grouse is propagated by bulbs or seeds. One or more babies are usually formed on the mother's bulb. The young bulbs are separated from the old ones. They grow separately for about 3 years. It is undesirable to leave them on the mother's bulb, as they will feed on her and constantly deplete her. To obtain a peduncle, an adult maternal bulb is taken for the next spring. With the seed method of planting flowering, you will have to wait a long time (3-7 years, depending on the variety).
By the end of flowering, the hazel grouse has one mother bulb and several young children. They are carefully dug out of the ground (in mid or late June). Then it is cleaned and dried for 2 weeks. After 14 days, the new bulbs are separated from the old, mother. Places of cuts are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Then, for several years, young bulbs are grown. For the first three years, babies will not bloom, at this time they are building up mass. You can divide the mother bulb into two parts, and plant each share separately. It is important that a piece of the bottom is preserved in each particle. The divided mother bulb will flower the next spring. All summer it is dried, and in the fall it is buried to a depth of 30 centimeters.
Seeds purchased in spring or summer are first immersed in water to swell. Then they are sown in the ground to a depth of 1 centimeter. If the seeds are obtained from the hazel grouse growing on the site, then in the fall, after collection, they can be sown immediately into the ground. True, with the seed reproduction method, flowers will appear only after 3-7 years.
To ensure the receipt of planting material, the seeds are sown not in the ground, but in boxes filled with ordinary soil. Throughout the winter, containers with seeds are stored in a cool basement. In the spring, the boxes are transferred to the garden and left in a sunny place. In summer, the earth is occasionally watered, making sure that it does not dry out. Seedlings hatch from seeds, young plants appear. They soon dry up.
In the summer, after the greens have dried, the bulbs are dug out of the boxes and dried in a container with sand. In the fall, they are planted for the winter, like adult bulbs. True, to a shallow depth (10 centimeters), and from above the surface is insulated with mulch.
The main difficulties
In the process of growing, gardeners can face various problems. For example, in hazel grouse, leaves may turn yellow and wither. This problem occurs when infected with Fusarium or leaf nematode. Fungicides (Fitosporin) and proper care are saved from fungal infection.
With an excess or lack of nitrogen in the soil, the leaves may turn yellow. In case of waterlogging of the soil, the bulbs will begin to rot. If the plant lacks moisture, it can wilt. It is important to apply sufficient fertilizer to the soil and water hazel grouses occasionally (once a week), especially in drought.
If the bulb freezes in winter, the plant may not bloom in the spring. This usually happens if the bulb was planted shallow in the fall, and the surface was not mulched and covered with snow. It is important to bury adult bulbs 30 centimeters into the ground. Young, planted near the surface, the children are sprinkled on top with a thick layer of spruce branches or straw.
It is advisable to plant the bulb in loose, loamy or sandy loam soil. If the soil is heavy and clayey, the bulb will start to rot. In this case, it needs to be dug up and transplanted to a new place. The transplant is carried out only in the fall (in September). The dug out onion is dried all summer. Roots may appear on it. They should not be deleted.
Two weeks before the transplant, the earth is prepared. The soil is dug up and fertilized with organic matter. A shallow but wide hole (30x40 centimeters) is made in the ground. The bottom of the hole is sprinkled with sand. An onion is carefully placed in the hole, a peg is inserted and sprinkled with earth.
Onion rattle or lily beetle
These are insects that feed on leaves, stems, buds, hazel grouse flowers. Gnaw leaves from the edges, gnaw holes in them. Can spoil daffodils, lilies, move to onions. They are somewhat similar to each other. Both beetles have bright colors - orange or red. Insects crack loudly when they see danger. They can fall to the ground and turn over on their back, against the background of dark soil they are not so easy to notice.
These are the grouse grouse's worst enemies. Spraying with insecticides (Iskra M, Aktellik) will save them from them. Usually 5 milliliters of the drug is diluted in 5 liters of water and sprayed with the plant solution.
Digging and storing the bulbs correctly
After flowering, you need to cut off the peduncle. This is done in the event that they do not plan to propagate the hazel grouse by seeds. Leaves can be left to dry. After all the greens are dry, you can cut them off and dig up the bulbs. They need to be cleaned of soil and washed. Then treat with a pink solution of potassium permanganate or fungicide. Then - dry, sprinkle with wood ash.
It is advisable to store the bulbs in a box with sand or sawdust, in a dark, dry, warm (up to 25 degrees) place all summer long. They can be planted only in September. By this time, roots will appear on the bulbs. They cannot be deleted. In the dug hole, carefully put the onion, slightly to one side, straightening the roots. Sprinkle with earth on top, and mulch before wintering.
Application in landscape design
The imperial hazel grouse looks great on a flower bed. The plant is planted as a single flower or used in a group arrangement. Grouse can be planted among tulips, daffodils, hyacinths. The unpleasant garlic smell of the bulbs will protect other, nearby growing, elite varieties of flowers from attacks of insects and rodents.
Hazel grouses quickly start growing. Their lush greenery will revive the flower bed, sullen after hibernation. Tall hazel grouses with lush inflorescences at the top of the stems look like paradise trees or exotic palms. They can be combined with low colors. For example, sow in the back row.
A high stem of hazel grouse with a lush crown of bright flowers is planted against the background of ground cover plants. Usually hazel grouses are used to decorate an alpine slide. Although this plant can be planted near late-flowering peonies, phloxes, lilies. If the hazel grouse flowers wither, their leaves will revive the flower bed. Later, peonies or lilies will bloom. Thus, the flower bed will always look green and blooming. In summer, other flowers (gatsania, alissum) can be planted in place of hazel grouses.
Irina Sergeevna, 56 years old:
“I bought a hazel grouse bulb in a flower shop. I planted it in the fall and covered it with leaves on top. In the spring a flower appeared. I'll tell you right away - the smell is awful. At the slightest breath of wind, its aroma is heard. Better to plant away from home. Although it is a very beautiful and huge flower. "
Galina Viktorovna, 48 years old:
“My favorite early spring flower. Doesn't require any attention. I plant around the perimeter of the garden. He scares away moles from me. I dig up the bulbs in July, and at the beginning of October I again bury them in the ground. "