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The Duchess pear is most often found in summer cottages. This is a fruitful and unpretentious variety that many summer residents immediately fell in love with. The fruits of the variety are tasty and versatile to use. The only negative is low frost resistance.
Description and characteristics of Duchess pear
The Duchess variety has many varieties, such as Rouge Delbara, which is often found in the markets. Before buying a pear variety, it is important to study the description and characteristics of the plant as well as the fruit.
Varieties of varieties
There are two main varieties of the Duchess variety (also called Williams) - summer and winter. Any hybrids that were created from the Duchess variety are divided into these two types.
Pear Williams summer
Winter hardiness in the summer variety is average. There is also a low resistance to diseases and insects. The fruits are usually tied in 2-3 pieces, tightly attached to the stalk. The weight of the pear is average and is about 85-190 g. The shape of the fruit is pear-shaped, the head is oblong.
The peel is dense, rough, lemon-colored. Creamy pulp. Ripe fruits have a sweet taste with a slight spicy aftertaste. The harvest ripens by August. Up to 250 kg of harvest is harvested from one tree.
Winter varieties William is characterized by a tall, branched tree with a wide crown. The shape of the crown is pyramidal. The leaves are dark green in color, grow in bunches or separately. The shade of ripe fruits is rich yellow, the flesh is white, soft and very juicy. There is a slight sour taste. The skin is smooth. Harvested in October. Up to 100 kg of fruits are harvested from one tree.
Red Williams is considered one of the most unusual pear varieties. And all thanks to the shade of the fruit. The rind is a rich wine shade. This variety is also called Rouge Dulbar. But not only the fruits of the variety are red, the trees have red bark and young leaves.
The tree is undersized, the crown is not thickened. Drought and frost resistance is average. The tree begins to bear fruit in the 5th year after planting the seedling. Ripening of pears begins in the second decade of August. The pulp of the fruit is juicy, tender, with a pleasant nutmeg aroma. Ripe fruits are medium in size. After harvest, they are stored until winter.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the variety include:
- High productivity.
- Mass ripening of fruits.
- Taste qualities.
- Stable yield.
- Universal use.
- You can grow in any region.
- The fruits are stored for a long time.
The disadvantages include low resistance to diseases and pests, drought and frost. In addition, the variety is self-fertile, which is also a disadvantage of the Duchess pear.
Features of growing a tree
Growing pears is practically no different from growing other fruit trees. It is important to pay attention to the technology of planting a seedling and tree care. In advance, you need to decide on the timing of planting and prepare the soil for planting a seedling.
When a pear is planted
You can plant seedlings twice a year - in spring and autumn. It is the autumn planting that is considered the most favorable. Its advantage is that during the winter the pear will have time to take root in a new place, and in the spring it will begin to actively grow. Also, when planting in spring, seedlings often begin to bloom in the same year, which is undesirable to allow.
If it is not possible to plant a tree in the fall, you can plant it in the spring. Many summer residents prefer spring for planting, since the seedling does not have to go through the winter immediately after planting, because over the summer the pear will get used to a new place.
In the fall, the pear is planted in September-October, and in the spring in April-May.
The pear prefers to grow in open, sunny areas. The main thing is that the place is protected from the wind. It is not recommended to plant a tree in a low area. If there is no other place, the seedling is planted in partial shade. It is good if he is in the sun most of the time. It is undesirable to plant a pear in the shade. The tree will grow poorly and yield poor crops due to lack of sunlight.
Choosing a landing site and preparing a pit
The pear prefers to grow on black soil, loamy or sandy loamy soils. Light fertile soils are suitable for seedlings. The plant is not demanding for the composition of the soil. A pit is prepared 2-3 weeks before planting the plant in the soil. To do this, dig a hole to a depth of 1 m and a width of 80 cm. The top layer of soil is mixed with manure, wood ash and mineral fertilizers. Then they fill the bottom of the hole with it. After 3 weeks, start planting.
It is undesirable to plant a pear too close to other trees. The minimum distance should be 3 m between each tree.
Distance between seedlings
If the distance with other fruit trees in the garden needs to be kept large, then the distance between the pears can be reduced. Enough 1.5 m between adjacent trees. If pears grow close to each other, this will increase pollination in trees, and, accordingly, yield.
The process of planting pear seedlings is practically the same as planting other fruit trees.
The process of planting a pear in a permanent place consists of several stages:
- Drive a stake into the center of the pit.
- Put a seedling in the hole, gently straighten the roots.
- Fill the hole with soil and tamp the earth near the trunk.
- Tie the seedling to the stake.
At the end of planting, water the seedling abundantly with warm water. It is recommended to plant a seedling in warm, calm weather.
Both winter and summer varieties of Duchess pears are self-fertile varieties, so pollinating trees will have to be planted nearby. The best pollinators include the following varieties:
- Olivier de Serre;
- Bere Ardanpon.
These varieties are suitable for the winter variety. For a summer variety, the best pollinators are:
- Clapp's favorite;
- Bere Ardanpon;
- Forest Beauty.
It is necessary to plant pollinating trees at a distance of 2-3 m.
Plant care rules
Minimal pear care includes watering, fertilizing, loosening the soil and removing weeds, and pruning the tree. These treatments will be enough to keep the plant healthy.
The plant does not need frequent watering. It is enough to moisten the tree 4 times per season:
- The first watering is carried out during the swelling of the kidneys.
- The second time the pear is watered is when the flowering period begins.
- The third watering is carried out while the fruit is being poured.
- The last time the plant is moistened is before the onset of frost.
2 buckets of water are enough for one tree. Watering is allowed with warm water heated in the sun.
Without additional fertilization of the soil, the plant will grow poorly, and the yield will decrease. Top dressing is applied 4 times per season. If necessary, the amount of fertilizer is increased.
- Potassium chloride (1 tablespoon), superphosphate (2 tablespoons) and 10 liters of water. Water at the root.
- Urea (1 tbsp. L.), Wood ash (550 g), phosphate rock (1 tbsp. L.), Ammophoska (2 tbsp. L.), Potassium chloride (1 tbsp. L.).
In spring, pears are fed with saltpeter, chicken droppings and urea. Top dressing is applied before the buds appear.
The soil is mulched in the fall. Peat, sawdust, chopped weeds without roots or straw are used as mulch. The layer of mulch should not be less than 15 cm. Mulch not only protects the rhizome from frost, but also saturates the soil with micronutrients. Mulch the soil in the fall every year.
The pear is pruned twice a season - in spring and autumn. In autumn, sanitary pruning is carried out when dry and damaged branches are removed. Anti-aging pruning is carried out in the spring. The trees are shortened by 1/3 of their total length. Then the branches growing to the bottom are cut off. From each pair of closely spaced branches, one is cut off. 7 skeletal branches are left on the lower tier. Cut off dry branches. At the forks of the branches, the lower shoots are cut off. These measures will be enough to rejuvenate the old plant.
Preparing for winter
Before the onset of winter, the soil around the trunk is mulched. And the lower part of the trunk is covered with durable material so that the bark is not gnawed by mice.
Diseases and pests
Most often, Duchess is affected by scab. But other diseases can often be found on the tree. For the prevention of scab, the plant is treated with Bordeaux liquid 3 times per season. The first time is when the leaves begin to appear. The second time is during flowering. The last one is when flowering ends. Another common disease is moniliosis. For prophylaxis, trees are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid and Hom preparation. Dry branches are also pruned regularly.
Among the insects on the pear there are:
- leaf roll;
From harmful insects use the drug "Cymbush", "Agravertin" and acaricides. Spraying with dandelion or chamomile broth helps a lot. A solution of laundry soap or an infusion of mustard powder helps with aphids.
Which region is the cultivar more adapted to?
Due to its low resistance to frost, it is not recommended to plant the Duchess variety in the northern regions. The tree may not survive severe frosts. The most favorable areas for growing are the southern, as well as the central part of Russia and the regions of the Volga region. The main condition for planting a seedling is the absence of severe frosts in winter.
Harvesting and storage of crops
Depending on the variety of Duchess pear, the harvest begins from August to October. It is recommended to harvest the fruits before they fall off. The harvested crop is stored in a cool, dark place. The winter variety can lie until December.