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What types of onion varieties are there, their names and descriptions

What types of onion varieties are there, their names and descriptions


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The quality and quantity of the harvest depends on the correct choice of the onion variety. When choosing it, you need to take into account the weather conditions of the region and the intended purpose of the vegetable. All types of onions differ in terms of ripening, shape, color and taste of turnip, duration of storage of the crop.

From the history of onions

The cultivation of onions took place about 4 thousand years ago in Asia. In Russia, they learned about this vegetable culture in the middle of the 12th century, since then almost no dish has been complete without onions. The vegetable has medicinal properties and is widely used in folk medicine.

All varieties, such as onions, differ in growth, appearance, taste, ripening times. There are about 900 varieties of onions, but only 220 species are grown on the land. The most common types of onion: turnip, batun, shallots, leeks, slime, branched, multi-tiered, chives, fragrant.

Varieties of onions

Varieties of onions by the amount of essential oils and sugar:

  • spicy varieties with a sugar content of 11%;
  • semi-sweet onions contain 8% sugar;
  • sweet varieties have about 5% sugar in their composition.

The sweetest onions contain the least amount of sugar, but they also contain less essential oils. It is essential oils that give the taste bitterness and pungency. Below is a list of onion species that are in demand among gardeners with names and descriptions.

Onion

It is better to choose an unpretentious onion variety with good yield and long-term storage.

The best yielding varieties include: Aleko, Zolotisty, Timiryazevsky. Early ripening varieties are: Carmen, Bogatyrskaya strength, Red Semko. Turnips do not lose their density and taste for a long time in onion varieties: Sturon, Orion, Stuttgarter.

Onions love fertile, loose soil with neutral acidity. It actively develops with good illumination and air temperatures above +15 degrees. The culture is especially demanding for irrigation during the formation of the underground part. Superphosphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium salt are suitable as fertilizers.

You can grow vegetables with seeds. Seeds are planted in the prepared soil - nigella. Next year the set will be ready. Onion seeds can be purchased at the store or harvested by yourself. The black seeds are in capsules on the arrows, which are released by the head of the onion after planting.

Before sowing, the seeds are sorted out, sorted, disinfected and germinated. In the prepared area, furrows are made at a distance of 20 cm. The seeds are deepened by 2-3 cm.

You can plant sevok. For planting, select heads no larger than 2.5 cm. Sevok is heated, disinfected and soaked in growth stimulants. As soon as the soil warms up to 10 degrees, the sowing is deepened by 5 cm.

Sevok begins to be planted before winter when the air temperature at night drops to -3. It is better to choose a sunny place without moisture stagnation. The best varieties of onions before winter are: Ellan, Bessonovsky, Arzamassky, Chalcedony.

Care consists in regular watering, loosening the soil after watering and rains, weeding, fertilizing and treating pests and diseases. The first feeding is carried out two weeks after planting. You can prepare a solution from chicken droppings. After another two weeks, a second feeding is carried out. The third fertilization coincides with the period of active head formation.

Leek

Leeks are a biennial herb. Has a lot in common with onions. It is distinguished by the absence of a round bulb; long, wide leaves and stem are used for food. The leaves can be up to one meter long.

All types of onions are subdivided according to the ripening period. Early varieties of onions begin to ripen after 140 days, mid-ripening after 165 days, the harvest of late-ripening leeks can be harvested in 180 days or more.

Leek varieties that can be grown from seeds: Kamus, Bastion, Tango, Mercury, Sizokryl, Vesta, Goliath.

The most common is the seedling method of planting a vegetable crop. Sowing seeds begins in late February or early March. Transplantation of adult seedlings is carried out in mid-May. Leek develops best in loamy soil. In autumn and spring, during the digging of a land plot, it is recommended to add humus or compost.

Care for leeks requires careful and attentive:

  • watering should be abundant and regular;
  • loosen the ground every week;
  • hilling is carried out every two weeks;
  • in order to get a rich harvest for the entire growing season, it is advisable to make at least two dressings;
  • it is imperative to destroy weeds in a timely manner.

The harvested crop is best stored with green leaves. This will keep the white stem from losing its juiciness and nutrients.

Shallot

The difference between shallots and onions is the formation at the base of the nest of several oblong bulbs, small in size and a large number of thin feathers. The flesh of the turnip tastes sweet, without bitterness.

By the timing of ripening, there are:

  • early ripening varieties: Cascade, Izumrud, Family, Yashma, Belozerets;
  • mid-season species: Ayrat, Blondin, Kubansky, Bistro, Andreyka;
  • with late borders of bulbs ripening: Krepysh, Siberian amber, Ural violet, Vonsky.

All shallots are distinguished by good disease resistance and drought tolerance. You can plant shallots in spring and autumn. It is better to choose a sunny place for planting, with non-acidic, fertile, loose soil. Can be grown from seeds and bulbs.

After planting, the plant should be watered frequently and abundantly. During the season, it is recommended to apply fertilizers three times, the last application should be three weeks before harvest. In order for the vegetable crop to receive a sufficient amount of oxygen and nutrients, the soil must be loosened and weeded.

It is imperative to carry out preventive treatment against insect pests (most often onion flies and nematodes, worms appear) and diseases (powdery mildew, fusarium, cervical rot occurs).

Chives

Before growing shallots, you need to get acquainted with the description of the variety. Oblong brown-white or violet-red bulbs are formed small, up to 20 pieces. They taste more tender, aromatic and sweet than onions.

The aerial part consists of a false stem and numerous tubular, bright green leaves. Schnitt begins to bloom in the second year of growth, in May. In August, instead of flowers, a box with seeds is formed. Young leaves are eaten, which are cut 2-3 times per season.

A landing site should be chosen protected from direct sunlight. The soil should be fertile and moist. Care is standard and involves weeding, loosening, fertilization.

Popular varieties of chives are: Bohemia, Crocus, Albion, Medonos, Siberian, Velta. They can be grown both outdoors and in a greenhouse.

Sweet onion

The allspice has long, flat, dark green leaves. The bulb does not form; instead, a long leg is formed with a diameter of 2 cm. It tastes juicy with a garlic aftertaste. The plant is named fragrant for the delicate aroma of inflorescences.

The plant does not require special growing conditions, but grows well on loose, fertile soils with neutral acidity. Does not have any special requirements for light, tolerates cold well. The growth of the leaves continues until it snows.

In the spring, new leaves appear in place of old leaves. Greens begin to be used for food only in the second year of plant growth. During the season, it is cut three times.

You can propagate a fragrant vegetable by seeds or by dividing a bush. Seeds are sown at the end of April or before winter, at the beginning of October. It is better to divide the bushes in the spring. Popular hybrid varieties of scented onions: Fragrant, Aprior, Benefis, Stargazer, Piquant, Dzhusay, Vostochny.

Tiered bow

What kind of vegetable is there? There are the following varieties of multi-tiered onions, which are known among vegetable growers: Gribovsky 38, Likova, Odessa winter, Memory.

The tiered bow has an unusual appearance. Instead of inflorescences, large airy bulbs are formed on the tubular arrow, which are called bulbs. The plant forms several arrows with bulbs located at different levels. The leaves are juicy and tasty, the bulbs have a slightly bitter taste.

The plant is characterized by high resistance to diseases and pests, unpretentious and easy to grow. It tolerates drought and frost well. As planting material, you can use both ground bulbs and the underground part.

The soil on the site should be light, loose, breathable and fertile. To get a good harvest, you need to fertilize the soil. Care consists in moderate watering, loosening the soil, weeding and timely fertilization.

Onion

Salad onion is a perennial herb. The bulb is small and not juicy, with thin scales. They are poorly stored in winter. Only tubular leaves and stems are used for food. The plant is characterized by excellent greenery with a pleasant, delicate aftertaste. Popular varieties are: April, Giant, Russian Winter.

Batun is very useful for the human body, the product has a high content of vitamins, trace elements, essential oils.

To plant a trampoline, you need to choose wet, but not swampy areas. Previously, the earth is dug up and organic matter is introduced. When growing an annual crop, sowing begins in early spring. For cultivation as a perennial plant, sowing is carried out in summer or autumn. The seeds are deepened by 1–2 cm.

After the emergence of seedlings, thinning is carried out, leaving a distance of 2.5 cm. When thinning again, the distance is increased to 6 cm. Otherwise, the care is no different.

Aging Buchu Bow

Puchu onion is a wild plant that grows on gravelly slopes, in the mountains, and can be found in the steppes. It is ubiquitous in Mongolia, China, Korea. In Korea, onions are grown for human consumption. The juicy ground part is edible only in spring, in summer the stem and leaves of the plant coarsen and acquire a bitter taste.

There are 4 types of Puchu:

  1. The European variety produces long, narrow and straight leaves.
  2. Altai-Sayan species is distinguished by short, straight leaves.
  3. The Trans-Baikal species can be recognized by a powerful bush and short, bent leaves.
  4. The Far Eastern species has long, spiral-shaped leaves.

The ripening period begins at the end of summer. By this time, the taste of the leaves acquires a pungent aftertaste. The onions are cut into rings, dried and added during the preparation of the first courses.

Strigunovsky

The Strigunovsky onion belongs to the northern group of plants. For full development, he needs 15-17 hours of daylight hours. The bulb is round, slightly elongated at the bases, weighs 50 g, with a sharp taste. By the time of ripening, the scales acquire a yellow color.

The turnip ripens early. The yield of the variety is high, it is well stored all winter, until the next harvest, it does not make any special requirements for care.

Tenaza

Tenaza onion seeds have average turnip ripening times. It takes 100 days to fully mature. The dense bulbs weigh 90 g and have a semi-sharp taste. Their shape is round, the scales are golden yellow. The yield is consistently high, the storage of the crop is long-term.

Valentino

Mid-season hybrids include the Valentino onion. The turnip is round, dense, weighing about 110 g. The scales are brown, the flesh is white and juicy with a semi-sharp taste.

Under good conditions, a rich harvest can be harvested, which can be stored for up to 5 months. The variety is resistant to adverse factors, high resistance to diseases, especially pink root rot.

Bessonovsky

It is worth reading the description of the Bessonovsky onion variety, which has good characteristics. The bulbs are small in size, weighing 50 g, round in shape, slightly flattened. The pulp tastes spicy, piquant. The scales are golden yellow.

The harvested crop can be stored for up to 9 months, while maintaining the taste and presentation. The variety belongs to early maturing crops; turnip can be harvested in the last days of July. The plant is characterized by moderate disease resistance.

Manas

Onion Manas is recommended to grow on a turnip from seeds. The hybrid belongs to late maturing crops. The bulb is rounded, semi-sharp to the taste, weight 90 g. The upper scales are brown. The pulp is white, juicy.

The yield of the variety is high, is characterized by drought resistance and rarely suffers from fungal diseases. The crop is suitable for long-term storage, while maintaining the taste and presentation.

Green banner

The high-yielding Green Banner onions have early ripening times. Type of onion batun. The plant forms erect leaves up to 50 cm long, dark green in color with a waxy bloom.

They retain their juiciness for a long time and do not coarse. Green leaves are frozen, dried and used in cooking. The variety is disease-resistant, especially well resistant to fusarium and pink root rot.

Golden

Hybrid onion Golden Semko is recommended to grow on a turnip from seeds. The hybrid has early ripening periods, which leave 73 days. A dense, rounded bulb weighing 90 g is formed. Dry scales are bright yellow in color. The taste of the white pulp is semi-sharp.

Taste and commercial qualities are preserved for 6 months. Good development is noted even with irregular watering and high air temperatures.

Danilovsky

In the description of the Danilovsky onion variety, a high yield and good resistance to diseases are noted. Refers to the onion type of vegetable crop. Ripening of the turnip begins after 100 days. Dry scales of a purple hue. The taste of light purple pulp is semi-sharp. The shape of the bulb is flat-round, weight 100 g.

Yellow dragonfly

A mid-season onion variety is the Yellow Dragonfly with excellent characteristics. The period from germination to mass lodging of tops is 100 days. The bulb is small, round, slightly flattened. Dry straw-yellow scales. The pulp of sweet taste, the mass of the onion is 60 g.

Sterling F1

The Sterling F1 onion hybrid is recommended for growing on a turnip as an annual plant from seeds and as a biennial plant from seedlings. Refers to late-ripening, onion culture. Dry white outer scales. The taste of the pulp is semi-sharp. The mass of a rounded bulb is 120 g. The yield is high.

Siberia F1

Onion Siberia F1 is recommended to grow on a turnip from seeds. Belongs to an early maturing culture. The white pulp is semi-sharp in taste. The bulb weighs 100 g. Dry scales are colored yellow-brown. It tolerates frost well, the variety is resistant to diseases and pest attacks.

Elan

Growing Elan onions from seeds is easy. Round-flat bulbs ripen early, their weight is 110 g. Hulls are yellow, flesh is white. The taste is soft, sweetish.

The seeds are frost-resistant, germinate even at a temperature of +1 degrees. Before winter, they are sown a month before the onset of frost. The bulbs will begin to form as early as mid-May. Juicy bulbs are harvested in a mule, they are not stored for a long time.

Senshui

The description of the winter hybrid of the Senshui variety notes the early ripening period, frost resistance, high yield and disease resistance.

The plant reaches a height of 50 cm.The leaves are wide, dark green. The head is round, slightly flattened. Outside is golden yellow, inner scales are white. Bulb weight 170 g.

Kaoba hybrid

The Kaoba onion hybrid has medium ripening times. From the moment of planting to ripening, 110 days pass. Fruits are round with a smooth yellow-brown surface.

The variety is characterized by high yields, long-term storage of crops, high resistance to diseases and pests.

Salad

Lettuce onions are easy to grow, require little maintenance and take up little space. Vegetable crops grow rapidly and are rarely subject to disease. All types of salad vegetables grow well in fertile, compacted soils. The harvest is stored for no more than 4 months. Bulbs contain many beneficial ingredients.

The varieties of the salad group include: Exibishen, Yalta, Ermak. The flesh of the onions is juicy with a pleasant semi-sharp, piquant aftertaste.

Choose according to your taste

Each type and variety of onions is suitable for preparing individual dishes (salads, canning, stewing, baking). Growing involves going through the same stages. It is imperative to prepare planting material, choose a place for planting, regularly water the seedlings, apply fertilizers, loosen and weed.

When choosing the type of vegetable crop, attention should be paid to the ripening time, yield, and it is imperative to study the main characteristics: color, taste and head size, the suitability of the leaves for food, and the requirements for care.

Vegetable growers have been choosing the Strigunov variety for many years. The onion tastes spicy and juicy. The ripening period lasts 80 days. The crop can be stored for a long time without losing its taste.

Onion Golden Semko forms a large round head (weight 100 g) in a short time. The taste is semi-sharp. The harvest is stored perfectly for a long time. It is not affected by diseases and has a high yield.


Watch the video: Onion variety and name, Ep#6 (January 2023).